Dualities in graphs and digraphs
Format: 14,8 x 21,0 cm
Publishing year: 2023
In this thesis we describe dualities in directed as well as undirected graphs based on tools such as width-parameters, obstructions and substructures. We mainly focus on directed graphs and their structure. In the context of a long open conjecture that bounds the monotonicity costs of a version of the directed cops and robber game, we introduce new width-measures based on directed separations that are closely related to DAG-width. We identify a tangle-like obstruction for which we prove a duality theorem. Johnson, Reed, Robertson, Seymour and Thomas introduced the width measure directed treewidth as a generalisation of treewidth for directed graphs. We introduce a new width measure, the cyclewidth, which is parametrically equivalent to directed treewidth. Making use of the connection between directed graphs and bipartite graphs with perfect matchings we characterise the digraphs of low cyclewidth. Generalising the seminal work by Robertson and Seymour resulting in a global structure theorem for undirected graphs, there is the goal of obtaining a structure theorem, based on directed treewidth, describing the structure of the directed graphs excluding a fixed butterfly minor. Working in this direction we present a new flat wall theorem for directed graphs which we believe to provide a better base for a directed structure theorem than the existing ones. On undirected graphs we present several results on induced subgraphs in the graphs themselves or the square graph of their linegraph. These results range from general statements about all graphs to the consideration of specific graph classes such as the one with exactly two moplexes.